RENEWABLE ENERGY GODFREY BOYLE PDF

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Godfrey Boyle Chap01 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Renewable energy: Power for a sustainable future. Renewable Energy By Godfrey Boyle - [Free] Renewable Energy By Godfrey Boyle [PDF]. [EPUB] -. RENEWABLE ENERGY BY GODFREY BOYLE. Renewable Energy Godfrey Boyle 3rd Edition Pdf renewable energy godfrey boyle vlsltd 53BFAD46BDB84C2E90DD4C Renewable Energy.


Renewable Energy Godfrey Boyle Pdf

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Box 2. When considering the economics of a power plant, rather than just its efficiency, it is useful to have a measure of its productivity in practice.

One measure of this is the plants capacity factor CF : its actual output over a given period of time divided by the maximum possible output.

The terms plant factor and load factor are also sometimes used as synonyms for capacity factor in the context of power systems. For example, energy from burning coal may be converted in a power station to electricity, which is then distributed to households and used in immersion heaters to heat water in domestic hot water tanks.

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The energy released when the coal is burned is called the primary energy required for that use. The amount of electricity reaching the consumer, after conversion losses in the power station and transmission losses in the electricity grid, is the delivered energy. After further losses in the tank and pipes, a final quantity, called the useful energy, comes out of the hot tap.

World total annual consumption of all forms of primary energy increased more than tenfold during the twentieth century, and by the year had reached an estimated EJ exajoules , or some 12 million tonnes of REnEwABlE EnERGy oil equivalent Mtoe Figure 1. As the figure reveals, fossil fuels provided more than four fifths of the total. The world population in was some 6. The hydro contribution is the actual electrical output.

Total: about EJ equivalent to12 billion tonnes of oil, or an average continuous rate of energy consumption of The contributions are as follows: oil: The chart continues: hydro 2.

This has a footnote saying The hydro contribution is the actual electrical output. The chart continues: traditional biomass: 6. The chart has a footnote saying Total: about exajoules equivalent to 12 billion tonnes of oil, or an average continous rate of energy consumption of But these figures conceal major differences.

The average North American consumes more than GJ per year, most people in Europe use roughly half this amount, and many of those in the poorer countries of the world less than one fifth much of it in the form of local biofuels see Chapter 4.

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How much do renewables contribute to world energy supplies? As Figure 1.

Figure 1. Underneath the chart a total consumption of 65 EJ is given.

Since most of this isnt traded, it often doesnt enter into national economic statistics and its true magnitude is only known approximately. The next largest category is new biomass. This includes wood and other crops specifically grown for energy purposes, biogas, and biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. This is a commodity that is likely to be traded and so its magnitude is more certain.

New biomass, together with energy from wastes, geothermal energy, solar energy and energy from wind, wave and tidal power make up the other sources shown in Figure 1. In practice, many electricity generating fossil fuelled and renewable energy technologies produce large amounts of unused waste heat. Renewable energy proportions based on primary energy may thus give a misleading picture.

Proportions of renewable energy in national and global statistics are now often quoted in terms of gross final energy consumption see Box 1. Box 1. Only a small percentage of this waste heat is put to good use in district heating schemes. This wastage occurs in fossil fuelled power stations, nuclear power plants and renewable power plants fuelled by wood or landfill gas.

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For example a landfill gas plant may consume 4 kWh of primary gas to produce 1 kWh of output electricity. However, other technologies such as wind, PV and hydro power can generate useful electricity directly with minimal losses.

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When comparing technologies or compiling national statistics, those based on delivered energy, i. The European Union Renewable Energy Directive CEC, sets out requirements for expressing future national renewable energy contributions in terms of the gross final energy consumption.

This is the defined as the delivered energy to the end users but with two additional small contributions: firstly, the losses in transmission of electricity and heat in district heating schemes ; and secondly the electricity and heat consumed in energy industries such as in oil refineries or within power stations.

However, it does not include the very large waste heat losses in electricity generation that feature in primary energy figures. The overall effect of using statistics based on gross final energy is to give more prominence to hydro, wind and PV technologies and less to low efficiency electricity generation technologies based on fossil fuels, nuclear power or renewables where the waste heat is not put to good use.

It also focuses attention on the need to improve electricity generation efficiencies. How long will the worlds fossil fuel reserves last?

At current consumption rates, it is estimated that world coal reserves could last for about years, oil for approximately 45 years and natural gas for around 60 years BP, Existing oilfields have a limited life; once exhausted they have to be replaced with new ones. In order just to maintain the worlds oil production at its current level, a large number of new oil fields will have to be developed.

Even more challenging is the need for new fields to be continuously discovered Figure 1. According to the International Energy Agency, the easy oil has been largely used up. What remains is likely to be more expensive and in difficult areas such as the Arctic or in deep offshore wells IEA, a. It shows the world oil supply broken into five categories: crude oil: currently producing fields; crude oil: fields yet to be developed; crude oil: fields yet to be found; natural gas liquids; unconventional oil.

It has a vertical axis labelled million barrels per day, and a horizontal axis labelled year. A vertical line indicates the year with a label and arrow to the top left reading actual data, and a label and arrow to the top right reading projection. The overall chart shows a slow rise in world oil supply from 65 million barrels per day in up to 81 million barrels per day in , and steadily rising to 95 million barrels per day in The world data for the category: crude oil: currently producing fields starts at 58 million barrels per day in and rises up to 70 million barrels per day in The curve continues into the projection zone by steadily falling to 15 million barrels per day in The data on crude oil: fields yet to be developed starts from zero in and increases steadily to 30 million barrels per day in Energy conservation: the First Law of Thermodynamics The renewable energy technologies described in this book transform one form of energy into another the final form in many cases being electricity.

In any such transformation of energy, the total quantity of energy remains unchanged. This principle, that energy is always conserved, is expressed by the First Law of Thermodynamics. So if the electrical energy output of a power station, for example, is less than the energy content of the fuel input, then some of the energy must have been converted to another form usually waste heat.

If the total quantity of energy is always the same, how can we talk of consuming it? We consume fuels, which are sources of readily available energy. We may burn fuel in a vehicle engine, converting its stored chemical energy into heat and then into the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle.

By using a wind turbine we can extract kinetic energy from moving air and convert it into electrical energy, which can in turn be used to heat the filament of an incandescent lamp causing it to radiate light energy. Forms of energy At the most basic level, the diversity of energy forms can be reduced to four: I kinetic I gravitational l electrical I nuclear.

Kinetic energy The kinetic energy possessed by any moving object is equal to half the mass m of the object times 'the square of its velocity V , i.

Godfrey Boyle Chap01

Less obviously, the kinetic energy Within a material determines its temperature. All matter consists of atoms, or combinations of atoms called molecules. In a gas, such as the air that surrounds us, these move freely. In a solid or a liquid, they form a more or less loosely linked network in which every particle is constantly vibrating.

Thermal energy, or heat, is the name given to the energy associated with this rapid random motion. The higher the temperature of a body, the faster its molecules are moving. In the temperature scale that is most natural to scientific theory, the Kelvin K scale, zero corresponds to zero molecular motion. Gravitational energy A second fundamental form of energy is gravitational energy. On Earth, an input of energy is required to lift an object because the gravitational pull of the Earth opposes that movement.

That this stored energy exists is obvious if you release the apple and observe the subsequent conversion to kinetic energy. The gravitational force pulling an object towards the Earth is called the weight of the object, and is equal to its mass, m, multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity, g [which is 9. Note that although everyday language may treat mass and weight as the same, science does not. The potential energy in joules stored in raising an object of mass m [in kilograms to a height H in metres is given by the following equation see Figure 1.

Electrical energy Gravity is not the only force influencing the objects around us.

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On a scale far too small for the eye to see, electrical forces hold together the atoms and molecules of all materials; gravity is an insignificant force at the molecular level. The electrical energy associated with these forces is the third of the basic forms. Every atom can be considered to consist of a cloud of electrically charged particles, electrons, moving incessantly around a central nucleus.

When atoms bond with other atoms to form molecules, the distribution of electrons is changed, often with dramatic effect. Thus chemical energy, Viewed at the atomic level, can be considered to be a form of electrical energy.

When a fuel is burned, the energy liberated the chemical energy is converted into heat energy. Essentially, the electrical energy released as the electrons are rearranged that is, the net release of energy from the breaking and forming of bonds is converted to the kinetic energy of the molecules of the combustion products. In a gas, such as the air that surrounds us, these move freely. In a solid or a liquid, they form a more or less loosely linked network in which every particle is constantly vibrating.

Thermal energy, or heat, is the name given to the energy associated with this rapid random motion. The higher the temperature of a body, the faster its molecules are moving. In the temperature scale that is most natural to scientific theory, the Kelvin K scale, zero corresponds to zero molecular motion. Gravitational energy A second fundamental form of energy is gravitational energy.

On Earth, an input of energy is required to lift an object because the gravitational pull of the Earth opposes that movement. That this stored energy exists is obvious if you release the apple and observe the subsequent conversion to kinetic energy. The gravitational force pulling an object towards the Earth is called the weight of the object, and is equal to its mass, m, multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity, g [which is 9.

Note that although everyday language may treat mass and weight as the same, science does not. The potential energy in joules stored in raising an object of mass m [in kilograms to a height H in metres is given by the following equation see Figure 1.

Electrical energy Gravity is not the only force influencing the objects around us. On a scale far too small for the eye to see, electrical forces hold together the atoms and molecules of all materials; gravity is an insignificant force at the molecular level. The electrical energy associated with these forces is the third of the basic forms. Every atom can be considered to consist of a cloud of electrically charged particles, electrons, moving incessantly around a central nucleus.

When atoms bond with other atoms to form molecules, the distribution of electrons is changed, often with dramatic effect. Thus chemical energy, Viewed at the atomic level, can be considered to be a form of electrical energy.

When a fuel is burned, the energy liberated the chemical energy is converted into heat energy. Essentially, the electrical energy released as the electrons are rearranged that is, the net release of energy from the breaking and forming of bonds is converted to the kinetic energy of the molecules of the combustion products.

In metals, one or two electrons from each atom can become detached and move freely through the lattice structure of the material. To maintain a steady current of electrons requires a constant input of energy because the electrons continually lose energy in collisions with the metal lattice [which is why wires get warm when they carry electric currents.

In a typical power station, the input fuel is burned and used to produce high—pressure steam, which drives a rotating turbine. This in turn drives an electrical generator, which operates on a principle discovered by Michael Faraday in a voltage is induced in a coil of wire that spins in a magnetic field.

The electrical energy can in turn be transformed into heat, light, motion or whatever, depending upon what is connected to the circuit.

Electricity is often used in this way, as an intermediary form of energy: it allows energy released from one source to be converted to another quite different form, usually at some distance from the source. Another form of electrical energy is that carried by electromagnetic radiation. More properly called electromagnetic energy, this is the form in which, for example, solar energy reaches the Earth. Electromagnetic energy is radiated in greater or lesser amounts by every object.

It travels as a wave that can carry energy through empty space.

The length of the wave [its wavelength characterizes its form, which includes X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared radiation, visible light, radio waves and microwaves. Nuclear energy The fourth and final basic form of energy, bound up in the central nuclei of atoms, is called nuclear energy.On Earth, an input of energy is required to lift an object because the gravitational pull of the Earth opposes that movement. When comparing technologies or compiling national statistics.

The length of the wave its wavelength characterizes its form. However, nuclear power development has stalled in some countries in recent years, due to increasing concerns about safety, cost, waste disposal and weapons proliferation, although in other countries nuclear expansion is continuing. As civilizations became more sophisticated, architects began to design buildings to take advantage of the Suns energy by enhancing their natural use of its heat and light, so reducing the need for artificial sources of warmth and illumination.