Iniciação à Lógica Matemática - Edgard de Alencar Filho by leonan_pereira. Copyright: © All Rights Reserved. Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. alencar filho, edgard de. iniciação à lógica matemática (1).pdf. Cargado por Rafael Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate. Iniciação à Lógica Matemática - Edgard de Alencar Diunggah oleh Anonymous Unduh sebagai PDF atau baca online dari Scribd. Tandai sebagai .

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The R cmeans command also generates the closest hard clustering solution. This information is also useful for identifying significant groups. Table 6 shows the number of companies in the 7 hard clusters after the execution of the algorithm. Cluster Number of companies 1 12 2 8 3 12 4 12 5 6 6 5 7 6 Table 6. Cluster sizes in the closest hard clustering. Cluster 6 is the one with the least number of companies. The next section will discuss the results reached and possible lines for future work.

In addition, soft computing has shown itself to be a very suitable tool for identifying organizational patterns, where the difference between some patterns and others is not so clear. The results of applying the techniques of soft clustering confirm the difficulty associating a single image or metaphor to a company, as features of the other images are also present. This image is the most relevant in 6 out of the 7 groups identified.


This metaphor means seeing the businesses as behaving in similar ways to our own biological mechanisms; successful businesses are often adaptable and open to change and the structures and procedures are less rigid. Also, it is remarkable the fact that the "flux and transformation" image appears in all groups with a high value. So, characteristics as constant change, dynamic equilibrium, flow, self-organization, systemic wisdom, attractors, chaos, complexity, butterfly effect, emergent properties, dialectics, and paradox are also present in most of companies.

In summary, this work confirms the difficulty linking a company with a single image, but it has allowed seeing images that have a greater presence in companies operating in Rio Grande do Sul. With respect to obtaining organizational patterns, it is necessary to point out that the valuations must be carried out in the context of the specific experience analyzed.

Thus, it is important to remember that the data analyzed correspond to a small sample of companies. The sample includes companies from various sectors and sizes, making it difficult to draw conclusions that can be generalized. It is necessary to extend the study with a larger sample size. It would also be interesting to carry out sector analysis to try to identify organizational features which are typical of companies in certain sectors, as well as geographically comparative studies.

In each company a group of up to 4 employees were interviewed; in some cases significant differences in the perception of different employees were observed.

It would therefore be interesting to try to analyze these differences in perception, depending on the type of company and the employee profile. From the point of view of applying soft clustering techniques, another line of research that opens from this work is the application of other soft clustering algorithms, in particular the use of algorithms that do not require the previous definition of the number of groups to be created. In any case, the study has served to demonstrate the usefulness of the methodology proposed and to draw some conclusions about organizational images that seem to have a presence in Brazilian companies.

MIS Quarterly. Pattern recognition with fuzzy objective function algorithms. Plenum Press, New York: DUNN, J. HAN, J.

Data Mining. Concepts and Techniques 2nd Edition.

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers: Aligning information security with the image of the organization and prioritization based on fuzzy logic or the industrial automation sector. Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management. Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. John Wiley and Sons: Images of Organization 1st ed.

Knowledge-Based Clustering. PHAM, D. Selection of K in K-means clustering. User participation in information systems security risk management. Using metaphors to teach organization theory. Journal of Management Education, vol. Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques.

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 8, pp. Appendix: Questionnaire for the identification of organizational images 1 Procedures, operations and processes are standardized.

In this sense, unlike methods that consider the text as a set of words, bag of words, we propose a method that takes into account the characteristics of the physical structure of the document in the extraction process of MWE. From this set of terms comparing pre-processed using an exhaustive algorithmic technique proposed by the authors with the results obtained for thirteen different measures of association statistics generated by the software Ngram Statistics Package NSP.

To perform this experiment was set up with a corpus of documents in digital format. It is for computer systems to receive data, organize them and classify them, so they can be retrieved and presented to the user requesting to meet the demand for desired information.

Since the s some models have been proposed and implemented to manage the maintenance and retrieval of structured data.

All of them require that a structural scheme is designed to receive data by creating a strong bond between the semantic data and the exact location where it is stored, i. E-mail: rsouza. Therefore, these models are suitable only when dealing with data that can be organized this way, as is the case of information systems, which store their data supported by the technologies provided by Relational Database Management Systems and their extensions.

However, most of the information generated by humans is not as structured as it is registered through language in written form. The big challenge, which still presents many open questions, is how to bring the computer close to the human form in dealing with information, that is, by the treatment of the natural language.

The quest to build a machine capable of communicating with humans in a natural way through the spoken or written language is something that Artificial Intelligence AI has been seeking for decades.

Research with the focus on the first approach, proved far more complex than it seemed. The second approach, which works with rationality, does what is right considering the data it has, it is far more successful, although limited to represent only some aspects of human nature. The first, the empiricists, between and , postulated that the experience is unique, or else at least the main form of construction of knowledge in the human mind. They believed that cognitive ability was in the brain and that no learning is possible from a tabula rasa, and that therefore, the brain had the ability to associate a priori pattern recognition and generalization, which combined with the rich human sensor capacity enabled language learning.

The second, the rationalists, between the years and postulated that a significant part of the knowledge of the human mind is not derived from the senses, but previously established, presumably by genetic inheritance. This current of thought was based on the theory of innate faculty of language proposed by Noam Chomsky, which considers the initial structures of the brain as responsible for making every individual, from sensory perception, follow certain paths and ways to organize and generalize the information internally.

Currently, from the most diverse areas of knowledge, advances have been aimed at the ability of machines to represent and retrieve information. In this search, one of the main aspects is to develop the ability to interpret documents assigning semantic value to the written text.

The area of Language Engineering and Natural Language Processing NLP is highlighted which through studies of morphology, syntax and semantic analysis, and statistical processing were designed to predict behavior of a textual content.

Each theory is related in the fact that there are needs for all people to meet. The research presented will discuss the research and theories of motivation, then prove there is a need for motivation in all workplaces and explain the most effective ways of motivating employees with financial and nonfinancial means. Variety removal of repetitiveness skill variety transformation. Based on their own work and the work of others, they developed a job characteristics model.

A job can be defined as a grouping of task within a prescribed unit or units of work. Oldhamas job characteristics model to job satisfaction. An elaborated model of job design has been proposed considering the designing of job. Job characteristics model of hackman and oldham in. Potter western kentucky university abstract the purpose of this paper is to explore a theoretical aspect of job design in a way that departs from the dominant paradigm.

Pdf purpose the paper aims to identify the key issues of job design research and practice to motivate employees performance. The job characteristics model jcm, as designed by hackman and oldham attempts to use job design to improve employee intrinsic motivation. Job design and job satisfaction the various psychological literatures on employee motivation contains may claims that changes in job design can be expected to produce better employee job performance and job satisfaction lawler Job characteristics model of hackman and oldham in garment sector in bangladesh.

The impact of job design on employee motivation uk essays. Job design process of job design approaches to job. Buchanan, recall the model of the organization below.

The job characteristics model, designed by hackman and oldham, is based on the idea that the task itself is key to employee motivation. Oldham university of lllinois a model is proposed that specifies the conditions under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively on their jobs. The dominant motivational model of work design is the job characteristics model jcm.

Job characteristics model employee motivation training. You can use the tool to create a new roles that are both motivating and rewarding, or to rectify an existing role when an employee isnt performing to the expected standard or.

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Understanding the job characteristics model including job. Definition and purpose a correctly defined job design will attract the right applicants and decrease job turnover by helping everyone understand their responsibilities up front. The hackman and oldham model was developed to specify how job characteristics and individual differences interact to affect the satisfaction, motivation, and the productivity of. Understanding the job characteristics model including job enrichment one of the most important components of human resources management is job design or work design, where the focus is on the specifications of the job that will satisfy requirements of the organization and the person holding the job.

Job design changes have been shown to impact changes in the level of motivation but these have also been shown to fluctuate over time with an initial spike in motivation with changes to the core dimensions then a return to prechange levels of motivation. The following types of variations are possible: verb-particle constructions, constructions consisting of a verb and one or more particles that are semantically idiosyncratic or compositional; decomposable idioms.

The light-verb construction is a verb regarded as being semantically weak subject to a variability syntactic solution, including passivation.

They are highly idiosyncratic, because there is a notorious difficulty in predicting which light-verb combines with which noun. Institutionalized Expressions are compositional expressions collocation , which vary morphologically or syntactically and that typically have a high statistic occurrence.

According to Moon cited by Villavicencio et al. MWE are lexical units formed by a broad continuum between the compositional groups and non-compositional or idiomatic. In this context it is understood by those compositional expressions from the characteristics of these components which determine characteristics of the whole.

And non-compositional idioms whose meaning or set of words has nothing to do with the meaning of each part. Given these characteristics, in dealing with MWE as words separated by space, they will surely bring anomalies to the process of IR. Among the different approaches that deal with NLP, they highlight those dealing with MWE and use the symbolic methods by Calzolari et al.

Both seek to interpret the textual content written in a natural language, but follow different paths to get results and computational costs of different contents. Thus the advantages and disadvantages of each method depend on the context for which they are being used. The symbolic approach seeks to find the meaning of syntactic, morphological and pragmatic texts based on a controlled dictionary of words and a set of rules aimed at interpretation.

In this case, processing is strongly dependent on the language and the domain of the corpus. While the statistical approach seeks to give treatment to the text by recognizing behavior patterns based on the frequency of co-occurrence of words.

The MWE are a set of words that co-occur with a frequency above chance. That is, as the authors themselves define, MWE are used to describe different but related phenomena, which can be described as a sequence of words which act as a unit at any level of language analysis and which have some or all of the following behaviors: reduced syntactic and semantic transparency, reduction or absence of compositionality, more or less stable, capable of violation of any rule syntax; high degree of lexicalization depending on pragmatic factors , high degree of conventionality.

Also according to these authors, MWE are located at the interface between grammar and lexicon. They also have some of the causes of the difficulties encountered in theoretical and computational framework for the treatment of MWE, as the difficulty of establishing clear boundaries for the field of MWE, the lack of computational lexicons of reasonable size to assist in NLP, before the multilingual perspective, often can not find a direct lexical equivalence; generalization of lexical difficulty general and terminology to a specific context.

The work Cazolari et al. In particular they seek to find grammatical devices that allow the identification of new MWE motivated by the desire for recognition as possible in the automated acquisition of MWE. In this sense, the research of these authors studied in depth two types of MWE: support verbs and compound nouns or nominal complex. For according to them these two types of MWE are at the center of the spectrum of compositional variation where the internal cohesion together with a high degree of variability in lexicalization and language-dependent variation can be observed.

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The approach used by Evert and Krenn is based on the calculus of statistical measures of association of the words contained in the text. In empirical tests, these authors used a subset of eight million words extracted from a corpus consisting of a newspaper written in German. The proposed approach was divided into three steps. In the first extracts the tuples from the corpus source contain Lexical pronouns P , nouns N and verbs V.

Thus a comparison is made between all pairs extracted from the lexical corpus with their sentences, accounting for each sentence, one of four possibilities: there are PN and V; there is PS, there is not V; there is not PS and there is V; there are not PS and V.

That is, one unit is added whenever one of the possibilities occurs. The second step the association measures are applied to the frequencies collected in the previous step. This process results in a list of pairs of MWE candidates with their association scores calculated and ordered from the most strongly associated to the less strongly associated. The "n" top candidates on the list are selected for use in the next step.

The third step is the evaluation of the list of MWE generated by a human expert. Thus, the approach proposed by these authors is characterized by an extraction of semiautomatic MWE.

Iniciação à Lógica Matemática Solutions Manual

In order to minimize the intellectual work of an expert, these authors propose the use of a technique of extracting a random sample, representative of the corpus rather than the complete set of documents. At first, the association measures are applied to all bigrams and trigrams generated from the corpus and the result of these measures is used for evaluation.

The second approach draws MWE in an automated way based on the alignments of lexical versions of the same content written in Portuguese and English. To combine the results obtained, the authors used two approaches to Bayesian networks. The statistical approach for the extraction of MWE through the co-occurrence of words in texts has been used in several recent works, among them: Pearce ; Kreen and Evert ; Pecina ; Ramisch and Villavicencio et al.

These studies use various statistical techniques that seek to identify MWE as a set of adjacent words that co-occur with a frequency greater than expected in a random sequence of words in a corpus. Thus the associative approach is nothing more than the use of a set of association measures that aim to identify the candidate expressions for MWE.

The lexical approach alignment checks if MWE found in a document written in certain a language also occurs in the corresponding version written in another language. In order to perform a review, the documents need to be aligned by matching the words expressed between the different versions in different languages. However, for the alignment to be possible, it is necessary that the documents are analyzed based on their morphology processed by a preprocessing tagging.

Thus the parts of speech are used as additional information in the identification process of MWE. In the research carried out by Zhang et al. These compounds are characterized by being contiguous containing from two to six words describing more stable syntactic pattern concepts.

These authors employ this technique in processing and text mining techniques, comparing it with traditional indexing vector space model speculating that the use of MWE for semantic interpretation of the text produces better results than the statistical and semantic models that deal with individual words. In seeking to make sense of a text from their relevant parts, other strategies have been adopted.

In this line the use of noun phrases stands out as search descriptors, addressed by the work of Kuramoto and Souza and researcher Maia who seeks to use the phrases to group documents. The method of identification of noun phrases uses an approach based on language, in the words of the text which are pre-labeled to identify them in grammatical classes as a basis for extracting phrases.

However, the identification of phrases requires an in-depth analytical processing of sentences which demands a comprehensive rules-based computer processing which dependens on the language.

In the context of this research, which aims at seeking a test case of IR, through the use of parts of the text as semantically relevant keywords for the search process compared to a computational cost that makes possible the response time for text processing to online, we chose the use of MWE that are easier to obtain and language-independent. These aspects lead us to suppose that the proposed technique is more appropriate for the context to retrieve similar documents from a corpus of MWE extracted from a document used as a reference for the search.

The goal is to get the semantic meaning of the document represented by the MWE and use them as descriptors of the search process. In this sense, MWE will be extracted from a reference document for use with search keywords in a IR system. This methodology allows the user to search an alternative.

In that, instead of informing keywords as part of the search, the user will be responsible for informing a document. In other words the search will be made from bigrams extracted from a document. This alternative strategy simplifies the user's work, which is known to use documents on the topic of interest to serve as the basis of the compared search in the recovery of similar documents.

Figure 1 shows a proposed software structure diagram which can be presented as a module of addition compared search, highlighted, which can be added to conventional systems of word search. Figure 1 - Module of compared search integrated with a SRI. Source: Prepared by the authors. According to Sarmento , a text is not just a random jumble of words. The order of the words in the text is what makes sense. Therefore, the study of cooccurrence of words brings important information.

This may indicate that the words are directly related by affinity or compositionality or indirectly by similarity.As you already know from experience, written mathematics is never easy to absorb, so write with an eye to minimizing the amount of work your reader will have to do.

The process of converting the PDF document page by page was performed in order to identify the header of the pages. Stylistically, works and days is hesiod s best work. Thus a comparison is made between all pairs extracted from the lexical corpus with their sentences, accounting for each sentence, one of four possibilities: there are PN and V; there is PS, there is not V; there is not PS and there is V; there are not PS and V. Vocabulary, grammar and syntax are geared to the organization of semantic fields.

Used appropriately, formulas are absolutely indispensable to clarity and ease of reading. Job characteristics model of hackman and oldham in.

All these issues are still a useful field for the sciences. Pattern recognition with fuzzy objective function algorithms. They believed that cognitive ability was in the brain and that no learning is possible from a tabula rasa, and that therefore, the brain had the ability to associate a priori pattern recognition and generalization, which combined with the rich human sensor capacity enabled language learning.