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Deschamps, Oeuvres completes, ed. Saint Hilaire Paris, , In the armies of the greater powers, France, Aragon, or England, old and modern elements, feudal levy and professionalism, were mixed; but the great money powers of the period, the Italian cities, came to rely entirely on professional soldiers.

Since the fourteenth century, Italy had been the "promised land" of all knights to whom war was chiefly a means of making money. The single groups, the compagnie di ventura, were The impact of the money economy provided a broader opportunity for recruiting armies.

Hundfed Y-r-a. In the battles of Morat and Nancy , the knights of Charles the Bold, unable to break up the squares of Swiss foot soldiers and to penetrate into the forest of their pikes, were thoroughly defeated.

This event was a European sensation. First of all, they strengthened the position of the overlord in relation to his vassals. The employment of artillery in a campaign was.. J Only the very wealthy rulers were able to afford artillery. Also, the principal military effect of the invention of artillery worked in favor of the great powers and against the smaller states and local centers of independence. The art of fortification was much cultivated in this period.

These medieval fortifications were vulnerable, however, to artillery fire.

Thus, the military balance became heavily weighed in favor of the offensive. Francesco di Giorgio Martini, one of the great Italian architects of the fifteenth century, who was in charge of the building of the fortresses for the Duke of Urbino, complained in his treatise on military architecture that "the man who would be able to balance defense against attack, would be more a god than a human being.

Adventurers and ruffians who wanted wealth and plunder, men who had nothing to lose and everything to gain through war, made up the main body of the armies.

As a result of a situation in which war was no longer undertaken as a religious duty, the purpose of military service became financial gain.

The moral problem arose whether it was a sin to follow a profession that aimed at the killing of other people. In the most civilized parts of Europe, such as Italy, people looked with contempt on soldiers and soldiering.

Mallett and J. His writings, as many have said, beginning with Machiavelli himself, present the lessons that he had drawn from his "long experience of the affairs of his time. In the Italian cities of the Renaissance, chancellery officials usually were somewhat bloodless civil servants who wrote down and carried out the measures on which the ruling circle had decided.

Machiavelli was an exception; he was a person of political importance in the Florentine republic between I and I 5 I 2. As Guicciardini wrote to him teasingly in the years of his disgrace, when he had accepted a minor, almost ridiculous mission to a chapter of the Franciscan Order-"in other times [you] negotiated with many kings, dukes and princes.

The Machiavelli were an old, highly regarded family with twelve Gonfalonieri and sixty-six high magistrates among them. Niccolo Machiavelli was descended from an illegitimate branch of this family and could not be a member of the ruling councils or of the policy-making magistrates, but his name and his friendship with Niccolo di Alessandro Machiavelli, a leading politician, set him apart from other Chancellery officials.

But Soderini disappointed the patricians because he viewed his election as a mandate to maintain and stabilize the popular 7 From Machiavelli's dedication of The Prince to Lorenzo de' Medici: "lunga esperienza delle cose moderne.

Cecil Grayson London, , 29; this is the best recent work on the facts of Machiavelli's life.

Science and Education Publishing

Soderini favored Machiavelli and used him in a variety of governmental tasks and missions, knowing that in his struggle with his aristocratic opponents it was useful to have the services of a man who was entirely dependent on him. Beyond that, however, Machiavelli was a remarkable personality, and this was certainly the crucial factor in extending his activities and responsibilities beyond the scope of an average government official. The pictures and busts that are supposed to represent him and show a face of foxlike cleverness with an ambiguous smile were made in the later part of the sixteenth century when Machiavelli had become the personification of calculating amorality and evil.

He could be emotional, and in the storms of passion could throw all caution to the wind. He loved to make fun of himself and of others.

Machiavelli served them also in many other functions: he could eagerly embark on excogitating marriage proposals for the daughters of his friend Guicciardini, or organize a sumptuous meal for Filippo Strozzi. Machiavelli knew that acting as a maitre de plaisir helped him retain the friendship of these great men, who kept in touch with the goings on in the world.

Machiavelli was deeply involved in the political world, yet he also looked upon it from a distance.

None of his contemporaries had to the same degree a view that combined both sharpness and perspective, and that moved continuously between what is and what ought to be. Machiavelli was aware of the tension inherent in the ambiguity of his position.

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In the prologue of his Mandragola, he says of the author that "in the whole Italian world he acknowledges no one to be his superior, but he will cringe before anyone who can afford better clothes. In his first government mission outside Florence, he negotiated the salary of a condottiere whose demands the Florentine government found excessive.

Vitelli's troops had taken one of the bulwarks of the defense of Pisa and the city lay open before them, but Vitelli hesitated to order his troops to advance and so this opportunity was lost.

Vitelli's exaggerated caution raised the suspicion of treason. He was deposed, brought to Florence, imprisoned, and finally decapitated. Much of the correspondence on this affair was in Machiavelli's hands. The stupidity with which the condottieri had fallen into Cesare's trap further justified for Machiavelli the contempt he felt for the condottieri system.

Although Machiavelli's view of Cesare underwent changes in the course of years, the experience of Sinigaglia was crucial for his recognition of the need for a new type of military leadership. The militia was to be divided into companies of three hundred men, who were to be drilled-in the pattern of German lansquenets-on festival days.

It was not expected that the citizens of Florence could be persuaded to accept for themselves the burden of some military service, although Machiavelli hoped that at some future time this would come about.

Ohns Material Properties PDF 2019

He considered the Ordinanza merely a beginning. He worked-without success-toward adding a levy of horsemen to the levy of foot soldiers.

His final aim was an army composed of men from the city of Florence, the towns of the territory, and the rural districts, under a unified command. The unreliability of the condottieri and of mercenaries was only one reason for Machiavelli's passionate interest in the creation of a conscript army. He expected it would have important consequences for Florentine foreign and domestic policy: greater independence in foreign affairs and stabilization of the domestic situation.

Machiavelli had learned on several of his diplomatic missions that the necessity of relying on mercenaries or foreign troops limited freedom of action and created dependence on other powers. He had been forced to ask other Italian rulers to allow Florence to engage the services of their condottieri and mercenaries; on a mission to France his task was to implore the French king to send French troops who would help to reestablish Florentine authority in areas that had revolted.

The dangers arising from military weakness loomed particularly large in the first decades of the sixteenth century. In Machiavelli's first political memorandum, written soon after he became a member of the Chancellery, he stated that a state had two ways only to attain its goal: "o Ia forze o lo amore,"'s and he immediately explained that negotiations and agree'' Marchand, Niccolo Machiavelli, Furthermore he knew only too well that the hiring of a condottiere, the determination of his salary, and the calculations about the number of troops needed for a particular military operation always increased internal tension.

The required sums were provided primarily through loans and taxes imposed on the wealthier citizens; accordingly the upper classes tried to keep these extraordinary expenses to a minimum. In a memorandum to the Gonfaloniere, Machiavelli bitterly attacked the wealthy citizens who always raised difficulties when they were expected to make sacrifices. He discussed the. The concrete result would be a diminution of the influence of the wealthy elites, hostile to Soderini, and a shift away from their domination over foreign policy.

That a militia would fight willingly, perhaps even enthusiastically, only if its members were well treated by the state in which they lived was evident to Machiavelli. With arms in the hands of the people, the influence of the wealthy upper classes would be diminished and the popular regime would be stabilized. Machiavelli took an intense interest in the formation of the militia.

In some districts he himself selected the men who were to serve in the militia, and supervised their drill.


He arranged for a parade of the militia on the Piazza della Signoria in Florence. The surrender of the city confirmed him in his conviction of the correctness of his military ideas. Even the return of the Medici, after a disastrous defeat of the militia before Prato, did not shake him in these convictions. In his Florentine History Machiavelli took particular pleasure in '6 Ibid. Machiavelli made it evident to his contemporaries, to whom these battles were a subject of much discussion, that a new era of war had opened.

III In The Prince Machiavelli promised fame to a new ruler who would introduce new laws of warfare; the reader can have little doubt that Machiavelli was the man who knew what these new rules were. And it is also clear that the new revolutionary doctrine will be presented in his book The Art of War.

But the student of this book will be astonished and perhaps disappointed because he will find in this book something very different from a "new" modern theory. The problem lies in the word "new. The situation at the beginning set the ideal norm for humanists of the Renaissance: a perfect world had existed in classical times.

Machiavelli was a humanistically educated man: it was particularly Rome that demonstrated to him the possibility of the rise of a city-republic to world power, and therefore was for him the embodiment of an ideal '7 Battle of Zagonara: Florentine History, bk.

For a more positive evaluation of the condottieri see Michael E. Mallett, Mercenaries and Their Masters London, A characteristic example of the extent to which he modelled his views in accordance with those that he believed the Romans had held is a memorandum he wrote as Secretary of the Office of Ten in answer to the question how the people of Arezzo, who had revolted against Florence, ought to be treated after Florentine rule had been restored.

The memorandum began by explaining what, according to Livy, Lucio Furio Camillo had done after the people of Latium had rebelled. To a large extent his true principles of military warfare are attempts to show on the basis of ancient sources how the Romans conducted war.

However, it ought always to be kept in mind that Machiavelli's aim was not a historically correct reconstruction of facts. He wanted to deduce the laws and principles that stood behind the facts of Roman military history, and show their applicability to the present. But in his steady striving for discovering the general rule behind a particular event or an individual action, he penetrates to the basic issues of war and military order.

In all likelihood Machiavelli wrote this book with its impact on the public of his time in mind. It fit the literary and scholarly conventions of the time. For recent discussions of Machiavelli's indebtedness to humanist notions, see J.

I Cambridge, I97S. The translation is the revised text of an eighteenth-century translation and is not always correct. The edition has an excellent introduction by Neal Wood and contains a useful selected bibliography. I, pp. I I. For Machiavelli this possibility of resurrecting the Roman military system justified a very detailed description of Roman army practice. He described the different units into which the army was divided, the chain of command, the drawing up of the army in battle order and its operations during the battle, the selection of campsites, and the attack and defense of fortified places.

Machiavelli clearly delighted in establishing with precision how the Romans proceeded, and the Renaissance admiration for everything that came from the classical world might have enabled his sixteenth-century readers to take interest in all these details.

For today's student of Machiavelli, The Art ofWar is not his most exciting work. It could not be entirely limited to an explanation of the Roman military system because Machiavelli had to discuss an obvious objection to the applicability of the Roman model to his own times: the invention of artillery, which had introduced an element in warfare that seemed to make the Roman methods obsolete.

Fabrizio's answer to this objection is brief because, as he explains, this issue had been discussed at length at other places-an allusion to the seventeenth chapter of the second book of Machiavelli's Discourses. Fabrizio's chief argument was that artillery is inaccurate; its shots are frequently too high or too low.

Stir casting is the cheapest and simplest method for composite material fabrication but composite materials produced through stir casting method suffers from poor incorporation and distribution of reinforcement particles in the matrix.

This is especially due to the reinforcement size, which in turn results in exhibiting agglomeration tendency and reduced wettability of particles within the melt. Al have good fatigue strength and average machinability, but has less resistance to corrosion.

Due to its remarkable high strength-to-weight ratio, this material finds a wide range of applications including aircraft fittings, worm gears, keys and various other vital components of commercial aircrafts and aerospace vehicles.

It is possible to fabricate MMC by different techniques but machining plays a major role in industrial component designs like that of tolerance and dimensions; likewise the improper tool selection and machining parameter leads to poor material quality and thus increase the production cost.

Whatsoever surface roughness also plays a vital role in material quality control. Depth of cut, cutting feed and spindle speed, reinforcement additions are supposed to be the major factors influencing the surface roughness of the machined surface of MMC and hence it is mandatory that all of these cutting parameter must be optimized so as to obtain material with better surface finish.

There are few works in which computational methods are used to optimize and predict the material properties of the newly developed materials. Mazahery and Shabani adopted stir casting technique to fabricate AMMC with varying process parameters pouring temperature, stirring speed, stirring time, pre-heat temperature of reinforcement and different percentage of SiC 5, 10 and 15 and results showcased that addition of SiC has improved the hardness.

GA coupled PSO technique is utilized to optimize the wear parameters and to study the influence of wear parameter over wear rate; this adopted algorithm generally coincides well with the experimental values.

In these techniques, metals were subjected to large deformation under high applied pressures in attempts to improve the mechanical properties of materials that were inherently fairly brittle. All of these procedures are capable of introducing large plastic straining and significant micro structural refinement in bulk crystalline solids.

Equal Channel Angular Extrusion The various procedures, equal-channel angular pressing is an especially attractive processing technique for several reasons. First, it can be applied to fairly large billets so that there is the potential for producing materials that may be used in a wide range of structural applications. Second, it is a relatively simple procedure that is easily performed on a wide range of alloys and, except only for the construction of the die, processing by ECAP uses equipment that is readily available in most laboratories.

Third, ECAP may be developed and applied to materials with different crystal structures and to many materials ranging from precipitation-hardened alloys to intermetallics and metal—matrix composites. Fourth, reasonable homogeneity is attained through most of the as pressed billet provided the pressings are continued to a sufficiently high strain.

Fifth, the process may be scaled-up for the pressing of relatively large samples and there is a potential for developing ECAP for use in commercial metal-processing procedures.

Journal of Applied Research and Technology. JART

These various attractive features have led to many experimental studies and new developments in ECAP processing over the last decade. Interest in the field of nano-structured materials has grown tremendously in recent years. The potential of improving mechanical properties by reducing the grain size to the nano-structured regime has been aggressively addressed in the past decade.

Over the past several years there has been considerable interest in the phenomena that take place at nanometer length scales and that may lead to novel mechanical properties in structural materials.Ohns material properties pdf. Machiavelli's insight into the nature of war and the role of the military establishment in the structure of society is the foundation of his military thought; the problems that these questions raise are not bound to a particular historical period.

When war is seen as determined by rational laws, it is only logical to leave nothing to chance and to expect that the adversary will throw his hand in when he has been brought into position where the game is rationally lost. Each unit constitutes an electric network in its own right and their interconnection constitutes the transmission system. Distributing the total system generation among the various control areas to comply with the scheduled tie flows.

However, patriotic enthusiasm could be expected only of an army composed by men fighting for their native land.