“The New Digital Age is must-reading for anyone who wants to truly understand the depths 73–74, Editorial Reviews. From Booklist. If prominence correlates with the attention paid to a The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives. Book Review: Sociology and Complexity Science, Brian Castellani and Frederick William Hafferty, , Springer: Complexity, Understanding Complex Systems.

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PDF | Book Review: Sharma R. (), review of the book “The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business” by. Picking up The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of. People, Nations and Business, written by two high-level Google executives in , one might expect . “The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business,” by Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, , pages.

Markus Slivka has my eternal gratitude for letting me use him as an example and for his friendship. Joel Orff gets thanks both for drawing such a beautiful comic strip of our story and for granting me permission to reproduce it here.

This book wouldn't be what it is without the students who have taken my undergraduate and graduate courses about personal relationships and new technology over the years at the University of Kansas.

Finally, I wouldn't be who I am without my family, whose support sustains me face-to-face, online, over the phone, and on paper. I thank them most of all. New forms of personal connection There have never been more ways to communicate with one another than there are right now. Once limited to face to face conversation, over the last several millennia we have steadily developed new technologies for interaction. The digital age is distinguished by rapid transformations in the kinds of technological mediation through which we encounter one another.

Face to face conversation, landline telephone calls, and postal mail have been joined by email, mobile phone calls, text messaging, instant messaging, chat, web boards, social networks, photo sharing, video sharing, multiplayer gaming, and more. People have always responded to new media with confusion. In this time of rapid innovation and diffusion, it's natural to be concerned about their effects on our relationships. When first faced with a new barrage of interpersonal communication media, people tend to react in one of two ways, both of which have long cultural histories.

On the one hand, people express concern that our communication has become increasingly shallow. For many, the increased amount of mediated interaction seems to threaten the sanctity of our personal relationships.

For others, new media offer the promise of more opportunity for connection with more people, a route to new opportunities and to stronger relationships and more diverse connections.

Both perspectives reflect a sense that digital media are changing the nature of our social connections. Over time, as people get used to new communication media, we come to see them in more nuanced ways. Eventually they become so taken for granted they are all but invisible. These moments in which they are new and the norms for their use are in flux offer fresh opportunities to think about our technologies, our connections, and the relationships amongst them.

Personal Connections in the Digital Age The purpose of this book is to provide a means of thinking critically about the roles of digital media, in particular the internet and the mobile phone, in personal relationships.

Rather than providing exuberant accounts or cautionary tales, this book provides a theoretical and data-grounded primer on how to make sense of these important changes in relational life. New media, new boundaries Digital media raise a variety of issues as we try to understand them, their place in our lives, and their consequences for our personhood and relationships with others.

When they are new, technologies affect how we see the world, our communities, our relationships, and our selves. They lead to social and cultural reorganization and reflection.

In her landmark study of nineteenth-century popular scientific magazines, Carolyn Marvin r showed how a new technology such as electricity, the telegraph, or the telephone creates a point in history where the familiar becomes unfamiliar, and therefore open to change.

This leads to anxiety. While people in ancient times fretted about writing and Victorians fretted about electricity, today we are in "a state of anxiety not only about the PC, but in relation to technology more generally" D.

Until the invention of the telegraph in the r8oos, this ability to transcend space brought with it inevitable time delays.

Messages could take years to reach their audience. The telegraph changed that by allowing real-time communication across long distances for the first time. People may have reeled in the face of writing and publishing, but it was little compared to how we reeled and continued to reel in the face of this newfound power to collapse time and space.

After millennia as creatures who engage in social interaction face to face, the ability to communicate across distance at very high speeds disrupts social understandings that are burned deep into our collective conscience.

Learning and Instruction in the Digital Age.pdf

Digital media continue these disruptions and pose new ones. They raise important questions for scholars and lay people alike. How can we be present yet also absent? What is a self if it's not in a body?

How can we have so much control yet lose so much freedom? What does personal communication mean when it's transmitted through a mass medium?

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What's a mass medium if it's used for personal communication? What do private and public mean anymore? What does it even mean to be real? Kenneth Gergen describes us as struggling with the "challenge of absent presence," worrying that too often we inhabit a "floating world" in which we engage primarily with non-present partners despite the presence of flesh-and-blood people in our physical location. We may be physically present in one space, yet mentally and emotionally engaged elsewhere.

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Consider, for instance, the dinner partner who is immersed in his mobile phone conversation. Since he is physically present, yet simultaneously absent, the very nature of self becomes problematic. Where is "he? Furthermore, what if the selves enacted through digital media don't line up with those we present face to face, or if they contradict one another?

If someone is nurturing face to face, aggressive in one online forum, and needy in another online forum, which is real? Is there such a thing as a true self anymore? Was there ever? Naomi Baron 2oo8 argues that new media offer us "volume control" to regulate our social environment and manage our encounters. We can create new opportunities to converse. We can avoid interactions, talking into a mobile phone or pretending to to avoid a co-present acquaintance or letting calls go to voice mail. We can manipulate our interactions, doing things like forwarding nasty emails or putting people on speakerphone.

We can use nonverbally limited media such as text messages or emails to shelter us from anxietyinducing encounters such as flirting or ending relationships. But, just as we can use these media to manage others more strategically, others can also more easily manage us. Our autonomy is increasingly constrained by the expectation that we can be reached for communication anytime, anywhere, and we will owe an appropriate and timely response. One of the most exciting elements of new media is that they allow us to communicate personally within what used to be prohibitively large groups.

This blurs the boundary between mass and interpersonal communication in ways that disrupt both. When people gather in an online space to talk about a television show, they are a mass communication audience, but the communication they have with one another is both interpersonal, directed to individuals within the group, and mass, available for anyone to read.

If, as increasingly happens, the conversations and materials these fans produce for one another are incorporated into the television show, the boundaries between the production and reception of mass media are blurred as well. Furthermore, what is personal may become mass, as when a young woman creates a videolog for her friends, which becomes widely viewed on YouTube.

The ability for individuals to communicate and produce mediated content on a mass scale has led to opportunities for fame that were not available outside of the established culture industries before, but confusion about the availability and scale of messages has also led to unplanned broadcast of what was meant to be private.

This is just one way in which the boundaries between public and private are implicated in and changed by digital media. Internet users, especially youth, have been decried for revealing private information through online activities. Mobile phone users have been assailed for carrying on private conversations in public spaces and shooting nasty looks at those who don't pretend not to notice.

Puro 23 describes mobile phone users as "doubly privatizing" public space since they "sequester themselves non-verbally and then fill the air with private matters. All of this happens in a cultural moment when individualism is increasingly defined through consumerist practices of downloading mass mediated and branded products Gergen, ; Livingstone, ; Walker, 2oo8.

At the heart of this boundary flux is deep confusion about what is virtual - that which seems real but is ultimately a mere simulation - and what is real.

Even people who hang out and build relationships online contrast it to what they do "IRL" In Real Life , lending credence to the perception that the mediated is unreal. Digital media thus call into question the very authenticity of our identities, relationships, and practices e.

Some critics have noted that these disruptions are part and parcel of a movement from modern to postmodern times in which time and space are compressed, speed is accelerated, people are ever more mobile, communication is person-to-person rather than place-to-place, identities are multiple, and communication media are ubiquitous e.

Others have emphasized how, within these cultural changes, digital media are made mundane, boring, and routine as they are increasingly embedded in everyday lives and social norms coalesce around their use e. The first perspective forms a necessary backdrop for contextualizing and making sense of the second, but the emphasis in this book is on the mundane and the everyday, on how people incorporate digital media into their routine practices of relating and with what consequences.

I then offer a very brief overview of the media discussed in this book and a discussion of who does and who doesn't make use of them. Chapter 2 is an orientation to the major perspectives used to understand the interrelationships between communication technology and society and an exploration of the major themes in popular rhetorics about digital media and personal connection.

Chapter 3 examines what happens to messages, both verbal and nonverbal, in mediated contexts. Chapter 4 addresses the group contexts in which online interaction often happens, including communities and social networks.

The remaining two chapters explore dyadic relationships. Chapter 5 shows how people present themselves to others and first get to know each other online. Chapter 6 looks at how people use new media to build and maintain their relationships.

Finally, the conclusion returns to the question of sorting myths from reality, arguing against the notion of a "cyberspace" that can be understood apart from the mundane realities of everyday life and for the notion that what happens online may be newer, but is no less real.

Seven key concepts If we want to build a rich understanding of how media influence personal connections, we need to stop talking about media in overly simplistic terms. We can't talk about consequences if we can't articulate capabilities.

What is it about these media that changes interaction and, potentially, relationships?

We need conceptual tools to differentiate media from one another and from face to face or, as Fortunati, zoos, more aptly termed it, "body to body" communication. We also need concepts to help us recognize the diversity amongst what may seem to be just one technology. The mobile phone, for instance, is used for voice, texting, and also picture and video exchange.

The internet includes interaction platforms as diverse as YouTube, product reviews on New forms of personal connection shopping sites, email and Instant Messaging IM , which differ from one another in many ways. Seven concepts that can be used to productively compare different media to one another as well as to face to face communication are interactivity, temporal structure, social cues, storage, replicability, reach, and mobility.

The many modes of communication on the internet and mobile phone vary in the degrees and kinds of interactivity they offer. Consider, for instance, the difference between using your phone to select a new ringtone and using that phone to argue with a romantic partner, or using a web site to download new shoes rather than to discuss current events.

Fornas and his co-authors zooz: 23 distinguish several meanings of interactivity. Social interactivity, "the ability of a medium to enable social interaction between groups or individuals," is what we are most interested in here. Other kinds include technical interactivity, "a medium's capability ofletting human users manipulate the machine via its interface," and textual interactivity, "the creative and interpretive interaction between users readers, viewers, listeners and texts.

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You can talk back to the big company or you can talk back to individual citizens. As we will see in chapters to come, the fact that the internet enables interactivity gives rise to new possibilities -for instance, we can meet new people and remain close to those who have moved away- as well as old concerns that people may be flirting with danger. The temporal structure of a communication medium is also important. Synchronous communication, such as is found in face to face conversations, phone calls, and instant messages, occurs in real time.

Asynchronous communication media, such as email and voicemail, have time delays between messages.

In practice, the distinction cannot always be tied to specific media. Poor connections may lead to time delays in a seemingly synchronous online medium such as Instant Messaging. Text messaging via the telephone is often asynchronous, but needn't be. Ostensibly New forms of personal connection asynchronous email may be sent and received so rapidly that it functions as a synchronous mode of communication.

The beauty of synchronous media is that they allow for the very rapid transmission of messages, even across distance. The price of synchronicity, however, is that interactants must be able to align their schedules in order to be simultaneously engaged. Realtime media are also poorly suited to hosting interaction in large groups, as the rapid-fire succession of messages that comes from having many people involved is nearly impossible to sort through and comprehend, let alone answer.

There is a reason that dinner parties are generally kept to a small collection of people and at large functions guests are usually seated at tables that seat fewer than a dozen. Accordingly, most online chat rooms and other real-time forums have limits on how many can participate at one time. With asynchronous media, the costs and benefits are reversed. Asynchronous communication allows very large groups to sustain interaction, as seen in the social network sites and online groups like fan forums, support groups, and hobbyist communities addressed in chapter 4- Asynchronicity also gives people time to manage their self-presentations more strategically.

However, word may filter more slowly through such groups and amongst individuals.

We can place fewer demands on others' time by leaving asynchronous messages for people to reply to when they like, but we may end up waiting longer than we'd hoped, or receive no reply at all.

One of the biggest changes wrought by digital media is that even asynchronous communication can happen faster than before. Time lags are created by the time it takes a person to check for new messages and respond, not by the time messages spend in transit.

In comparison to postal mail, the internet can shave weeks off interactions. Most of the questions surrounding the personal connections people form and maintain through digital media derive from the sparse social cues that are available to provide further information regarding context, the meanings of messages, and the identities of the people interacting.

As chapter 3 will address in more detail, rich media provide a full range of cues, while leaner media provide fewer. Body-to-body, people have a full range of communicative resources available to them. They share a physical context, which they can refer to nonverbally as well as verbally for instance, by pointing to a chair. They are subject to the same environmental influences and distractions.

They can see one another's body movements, including the facial expressions through which so much meaning is conveyed. They can use each other's eye gaze to gauge attention.

They can see one another's appearance. They can also hear the sound of one another's voice. All of these cues- contextual, visual, and auditory - are important to interpreting messages and creating a social context within which messages are meaningful.

To varying degrees, digital media provide fewer social cues. In mobile and online interactions, we may have few if any cues to our partner's location. This is no doubt why so many mobile phone calls begin with the question "where are you?

The lack of shared physical context does not mean that interactants have no shared contexts. People communicating in personal relationships share relational contexts, knowledge, and some history. People in online groups often develop rich in-group social environments that those who've participated for any length of time will recognize.

Though, as we will address in more depth in chapter 6, much of our mediated interaction is with people we know face to face, some media convey very little information about the identities of those with whom we are communicating.

In some circumstances, this renders people anonymous, leading to both opportunity and terror. In lean media, people have more ability to expand, manipulate, multiply, and distort the identities they present to others.

The paucity of personal and social identity cues can also make people feel safer, and thus create an environment in which they are more honest. Chapter 5 examines these identity issues.

Storage, and, relatedly, replicability, are highly consequential. Unless one makes an audio or video recording of telephone and face to face conversations practices with laws governing acceptable practice , they are gone as soon as they are said. Human memory for conversation is notoriously poor. Synchronous forms like IM and Skype require logging programs that most users are not likely to have. Those that are asynchronous can be easily saved, replicated and redistributed to others.

They can also be archived for search. Despite this, online messages may feel ephemeral, and indeed web sites may be there one day and different or gone the next. Media also vary in the size of an audience they can attain or support, or reach. Gurak 30 describes reach as "the partner of speed," noting that "digitized discourse travels quickly, but it also travels widely One single keystroke can send a message to thousands of people.

Even when amplified a form of mediation in itself , physical space and human sensory constraints limit how many can see or hear a message as it's delivered.

The telephone allows for group calls, but the upper limit on how many a group can admit or maintain is small. In contrast, many forms of digital communication can be seen by any internet user as in the case of websites or can be sent and, thanks to storage and replicability, resent to enormous audiences. Messages can reach audiences both local and global. This is a powerful subversion of the elitism of mass media, within which a very small number of broadcasters could engage in one-to-many communication, usually within regional or geographic boundaries.

The gatekeeping function of mass media is challenged as individuals use digital media to spread messages much farther and more widely than was ever historically possible Gurak, Future chapters will address how enhanced reach allows people to form new communities of interest and new relationships.

Finally, media vary in their mobility, or extent to which they are portable - enabling people to send and receive messages regardless oflocation- or stationary- requiring that people be in specific locations in order to interact. The mobile phone represents the paradigm case of mobility, making person-to-person communication possible regardless oflocation. The clunky personal computer tied to a desk requires that the user be seated in that spot. Landline phones require that people be in the building where that number rings.

In addition to offering spatial mobility, some digital media allow us to move between times and interpersonal contexts Ishii, Mobile media offer the promise that we need never be out of touch with our loved ones, no matter how long the traffic jam in which we find ourselves.

When stuck with our families, we may import our friends through our mobile devices. As we'll see in chapter 6, mobile media give rise to microcoordination Ling, in which people check in with one another to provide brief updates or quickly arrange meetings and errands. However, more than other personal media, mobile phones threaten autonomy, as we may become accountable to others at all times.

These seven concepts help us begin to understand the similarities and differences between face to face communication and mediated interaction, as well as the variation amongst different kinds of digital interactions.

Face to face communication, like all the forms of digital media we will be discussing, is interactive. People can respond to one another in message exchanges. Face to face communication is synchronous. It is also loaded with social cues that make one another's identities and many elements of social and physical context apparent although, as we will return to in chapter 5, this does not guarantee honesty. Face to face conversations cannot be stored, nor can they be replicated.

Even when recorded and, for example, broadcast, the recording loses many elements of the context that make face to face communication New forms of personal connection what it is. As discussed above, face to face communication has low reach, limiting how many can be involved and how far messages can spread. Face to face communication may be mobile, but only so long as the interactants are moving through space together. This combination of qualities grants face to face a sort of specialness.

The full range of cues, the irreplicability, and the need to be there in shared place and time with the other all contribute to the sense that face to face communication is authentic, putting the "communion" in communication.

In contrast, some forms of mediated interaction are asynchronous, enabling more message planning and wider reach, but a potentially lower sense of connection. Media such as Skype or other video chat technologies offer many social cues- voice, facial expression, a window into the physical surroundings - but lack critical intimacy cues including touch and smell. You know the answer. Distrust is high. Moreover, it makes business sense. Mind you: I love data.

We all love data. There would be no technology, no media, no nothing without it. In fact, digital transformation is a matter of data and the right information. The things we can achieve with data are amazing. Data-driven marketing can lead to the most possible relevant and creative outcomes. Data — and the insights and knowledge we turn into value — can make customer service truly work.

Heck, data even saves lives, enables us to explore the world and can make our lives so much more fun. Yet, there is another side. Once we knew what happened with all the data we shared. More or less. As Schmidt and Cohen? Internet asylum? Along the way, we meet a cadre of international figures? Inspiring, provocative and absorbing, The New Digital Age is a brilliant analysis of how our hyper-connected world will soon look, from two of our most prescient and informed public thinkers.

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Playing next Kayak Case Study:The perspective that mediated communication is a diminished form of face to face communication ignores many other factors that affect mediated communication, such as people's familiarity with the technology, whether they know one another already and what sort of relationship they have, whether they anticipate meeting or seeing one another again, their expectations and motivations for interacting, and the social contexts in which interactions are embedded.

Your attention span is being reduced and you're not engaging your brain and improving nerve connections.

With the cues to hierarchy e. A now-legendary MCI advertisement that ran during the Superbowl described it like this: Consider, for instance, the difference between using your phone to select a new ringtone and using that phone to argue with a romantic partner, or using a web site to download new shoes rather than to discuss current events.

In a content analysis of transcripts from a professionally oriented CompuServe forum, Rice and Love r found that socioemotional content defined as showing solidarity, tension relief, agreement, antagonism, tension, and disagreement constituted around 30 percent of messages, and was mostly positive. In the s, for instance, people anticipated that radio would "provide culture and education to the masses, eliminate politicians' ability to incite passions in a mob, bring people closer to government proceedings, and produce a national culture that would transcend regional and Making new media local jealousies" Douglas, []: Terms like fractals, self-organized criticality, bifurcation, attractors, dissipative structures, and scaling laws have very concrete and clearly defined mathematical meanings.

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