𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , C S P Ojha and others published Engineering hydrology. PDF | Description: This lucidly-written book, with its diagrammatic treatment of the fundamentals of engineering hydrology in the areas of. Hydrology: is concerned with the origin (occurence,circulation and distribution) and chemical and physical properties of water on catlı,. Engineering hydrology.
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Introduction to Hydrology. 1) Definition and scope of Hydrology. 2) Examples of water resources and engineering problems to which Hydrology provides. Open channel control structures. 3. Introduction to Surface Water Hydrology. –. Hydrologic Cycle. –. Rainfall, Runoff and Design Events. 4. Hydraulic Structures. Download Engineering Hydrology By K Subramanya – This book serves as a basic text for under graduate and post graduate civil engineering students during .
Just below the funnel a pair of tipping buckets is pivoted such that when one of the bucket receives a rainfall of 0.
The tipping of the bucket actuates on electric circuit which causes a pen to move on a chart wrapped round a drum which revolves by a clock mechanism. This type cannot record snow.
In this type of rain-gauge, when a certain weight of rainfall is collected in a tank, which rests on a spring-lever balance, it makes a pen to move on a chart wrapped round a clock driven drum Fig.
The rotation of the drum sets the time scale while the vertical motion of the pen records the cumulative precipitation.
In this type, as the rain is collected in a float chamber, the float moves up which makes a pen to move on a chart wrapped round a clock driven drum Fig. When the float chamber fills up, the water siphons out automatically through a siphon tube kept in an interconnected siphon chamber.
The clockwork revolves the drum once in 24 hours. The clock mechanism needs rewinding once in a week when the chart wrapped round the drum is also replaced. This type of gauge is used by IMD. This type of rain gauge has an automatic mechanical arrangement consisting of a clockwork, a drum with a graph paper fixed around it and a pencil point, which draws the mass curve of rainfall From this mass curve, the depth of rainfall in a given time, the rate or intensity of rainfall at any instant during a storm, time of onset and cessation of rainfall, can be determined.
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Is used in India is the Symons rain gauge Fig. It consists of a funnel with a circular rim of The cylindrical metal casing is fixed vertically to the masonry foundation with the level rim The rain falling into the funnel is collected in the receiver and is measured in a special measuring glass graduated in mm of rainfall; when full it can measure 1.
The missing record at a station in a particular year may be found by the ratio of averages or by graphical comparison. C Double-mass analysisThe trend of the rainfall records at a station may slightly change after some years due to a change in the environment or exposure of a station either due to coming of a new building, fence, planting of trees or cutting of forest nearby, which affect the catch of the gauge due to change in the wind pattern or exposure. Agricultural runoff and other water pollution that flows to the outlet is the cause of the hypoxic, or dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.
Drainage basins are important in ecology. As water flows over the ground and along rivers it can pick up nutrients, sediment, and pollutants.
With the water, they are transported towards the outlet of the basin, and can affect the ecological processes along the way as well as in the receiving water source.
Modern use of artificial fertilizers, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, has affected the mouths of drainage basins. The minerals are carried by the drainage basin to the mouth, and may accumulate there, disturbing the natural mineral balance. This can cause eutrophication where plant growth is accelerated by the additional material.
[PDF] Engineering Hydrology By K Subramanya Book Free Download
Further information: Watershed management Because drainage basins are coherent entities in a hydro-logical sense, it has become common to manage water resources on the basis of individual basins. In the U. In New Zealand, they are called catchment boards. Comparable community groups based in Ontario, Canada, are called conservation authorities.
In North America, this function is referred to as " watershed management ". When a river basin crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary, it is identified as a transboundary river. Management of such basins becomes the responsibility of the countries sharing it.
Management of shared drainage basins is also seen as a way to build lasting peaceful relationships among countries. Catchment factors are: topography , shape, size, soil type, and land use paved or roofed areas. Catchment topography and shape determine the time taken for rain to reach the river, while catchment size, soil type, and development determine the amount of water to reach the river.
Topography[ edit ] Generally, topography plays a big part in how fast runoff will reach a river. Rain that falls in steep mountainous areas will reach the primary river in the drainage basin faster than flat or lightly sloping areas e. Shape[ edit ] Shape will contribute to the speed with which the runoff reaches a river.
A long thin catchment will take longer to drain than a circular catchment. Size[ edit ] Size will help determine the amount of water reaching the river, as the larger the catchment the greater the potential for flooding.
It is also determined on the basis of length and width of the drainage basin.
Soil type[ edit ] Soil type will help determine how much water reaches the river. Certain soil types such as sandy soils are very free-draining, and rainfall on sandy soil is likely to be absorbed by the ground. However, soils containing clay can be almost impermeable and therefore rainfall on clay soils will run off and contribute to flood volumes.
After prolonged rainfall even free-draining soils can become saturated , meaning that any further rainfall will reach the river rather than being absorbed by the ground. If the surface is impermeable the precipitation will create surface run-off which will lead to higher risk of flooding; if the ground is permeable, the precipitation will infiltrate the soil.The last decade has been a time of considerable activity in the subject, following the publication of TERM. April 8. This collection of reports provides guidelines and targeted resources for all stakeholders in a disaster response, including state and local governments, emergency medical services and health care centers.
Comprehensive coverage and clear explanations make the book very student friendly. To further emphasise the degree of applicability the subject is classified as. Examples of this on-going work include advances in urban hydrology, published as The Wallingford Procedure; the Low Flow Studies, t Engineering Hydrology Oxford Higher Education Engineering Hydrology is designed as a textbook for undergraduate students of Civil Engineering and introduces several new concepts and analytical methods and seeks to address the present day needs of graduating engineers.
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