Home · Courses · Freebies · Excel Shortcuts · Ebook Download · FREE MS Excel Tutorial · Beginner · Intermediate · Advanced · God Mode. Learn Excel From Beginner level to advanced excel with our Excel Course in Hindi. Learn excel formulas in Hindi with examples. + Videos of Excel Course . , Excel started handling each workbook as its own instance of the program. 2. Navigate . An example is when a formula references a range of cells. In AT.
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The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, email addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein Identifying the different Excel programs. . Creating formulas to calculate values. CFI's Excel Book is free and available for anyone to download as a PDF. Read about the most important shortcuts, formulas, functions, and tips you need to to calculating the yield of a bond, CFI's Excel eBook will provide you examples and . Excel Formulas. Basic math. Function. Formula. Example. To add up the total. = SUM(cell range). =SUM(B2:B9). To add individual items. =Value1 + Value 2.
Starting with Windows Vista, Microsoft no longer supports the facility. These include opening Excel documents on the web using either ActiveX controls, or plugins like the Adobe Flash Player. ExcelPackage is another open-source project that provides server-side generation of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Excel Services is a current. NET developer tool that can enhance Excel's capabilities. Excel spreadsheets can be accessed from Python with xlrd and openpyxl.
Password protection Microsoft Excel protection offers several types of passwords: Password to open a document  Password to modify a document  Password to unprotect worksheet Password to protect workbook Password to protect the sharing workbook  All passwords except password to open a document can be removed instantly regardless of Microsoft Excel version used to create the document.
These types of passwords are used primarily for shared work on a document. The only type of password that can prevent a trespasser from gaining access to a document is password to open a document.
The cryptographic strength of this kind of protection depends strongly on the Microsoft Excel version that was used to create the document. In Microsoft Excel 95 and earlier versions, password to open is converted to a bit key that can be instantly cracked.
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As regards services which use rainbow tables e. Password-Find , it takes up to several seconds to remove protection. In addition, password-cracking programs can brute-force attack passwords at a rate of hundreds of thousands of passwords a second, which not only lets them decrypt a document, but also find the original password.
Due to the CSP, an Excel file can't be decrypted, and thus the password to open can't be removed, though the brute-force attack speed remains quite high. The situation changed fundamentally in Excel , where the modern AES algorithm with a key of bits started being used for decryption, and a 50,fold use of the hash function SHA1 reduced the speed of brute-force attacks down to hundreds of passwords per second.
In Excel , the strength of the protection by the default was increased two times due to the use of a ,fold SHA1 to convert a password to a key. Microsoft Excel Viewer Microsoft Excel Viewer was a freeware program for viewing and printing spreadsheet documents created by Excel. Excel Viewer is similar to Microsoft Word Viewer in functionality. There is not a current version for the Mac. Numeric precision Main article: Numeric precision in Microsoft Excel Excel maintains 15 figures in its numbers, but they are not always accurate: the bottom line should be the same as the top line.
Despite the use of figure precision, Excel can display many more figures up to thirty upon user request. But the displayed figures are not those actually used in its computations, and so, for example, the difference of two numbers may differ from the difference of their displayed values. Although such departures are usually beyond the 15th decimal, exceptions do occur, especially for very large or very small numbers.
Serious errors can occur if decisions are made based upon automated comparisons of numbers for example, using the Excel If function , as equality of two numbers can be unpredictable. Although this number has a decimal representation that is an infinite string of ones, Excel displays only the leading 15 figures. In the second line, the number one is added to the fraction, and again Excel displays only 15 figures. In the third line, one is subtracted from the sum using Excel.
Because the sum in the second line has only eleven 1's after the decimal, the difference when 1 is subtracted from this displayed value is three 0's followed by a string of eleven 1's. However, the difference reported by Excel in the third line is three 0's followed by a string of thirteen 1's and two extra erroneous digits. This is because Excel calculates with about half a digit more than it displays. Excel works with a modified version of the IEEE specification.
See the main article for details. Besides accuracy in user computations, the question of accuracy in Excel-provided functions may be raised. Particularly in the arena of statistical functions, Excel has been criticized for sacrificing accuracy for speed of calculation. Microsoft has announced some of these issues are addressed in Excel In the case of excessively large results, Excel will return the error warning NUM!
Date range Excel supports dates with years in the range , except that December 31, can be entered as 0 and is displayed as 0-jan Converting a fraction of a day into hours, minutes and days by treating it as a moment on the day January 1, , does not work for a negative fraction. A similar problem occurs when a text happens to be in the form of a floating point notation of a number. In these cases the original exact text cannot be recovered from the result. This issue has caused a well known problem in the analysis of DNA , for example in bioinformatics.
As first reported in ,  genetic scientists found that Excel automatically and incorrectly converts certain gene names into dates.
A follow-up study in  found many peer reviewed scientific journal papers had been affected and that "Of the selected journals, the proportion of published articles with Excel files containing gene lists that are affected by gene name errors is IsText " in VBA , incorrectly returns "false".
You cannot open two documents with the same name, even if the documents are in different folders. Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. NORM function. T function. Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution.
Converts a number from one measurement system to another. Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets. COS function. Returns the cosine of a number. COSH function. Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. COT function. COTH function. Returns the cotangent of an angle. COUNT function. Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments. Counts how many values are in the list of arguments. Counts the number of blank cells within a range. Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria.
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria. Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date. Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date. COVAR function. Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. P function. S function. Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.
CSC function. Returns the cosecant of an angle. CSCH function. Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. Returns a key performance indicator KPI name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's performance. Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube.
Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students.
Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.
Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods. Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods.
DATE function. Date and time: Returns the serial number of a particular date. Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number. Returns the average of selected database entries. DAY function. Converts a serial number to a day of the month. DAYS function. Returns the number of days between two dates. Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a day year.
DB function. Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method. DBCS function. Changes half-width single-byte English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width double-byte characters. Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database. DDB function. Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify.
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal. Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number. Converts radians to degrees. DELTA function. DEVSQ function. Returns the sum of squares of deviations.
DGET function. Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria. DISC function. Returns the discount rate for a security. DMAX function. Returns the maximum value from selected database entries. DMIN function. Returns the minimum value from selected database entries. Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number. Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction.
Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database. Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries. Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries.
DSUM function. Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria. Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments. DVAR function. Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries.
Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries. EDATE function. Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date. Returns the effective annual interest rate. Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months. ERF function. ERFC function.
Top 40 Microsoft Excel Interview Questions & Answers
Returns the complementary error function. Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity. TYPE function. Returns a number corresponding to an error type. Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary triangulation. EVEN function. Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. EXACT function. Checks to see if two text values are identical.
EXP function. Returns e raised to the power of a given number. Returns the exponential distribution. FACT function. Returns the factorial of a number.
Returns the double factorial of a number. FALSE function. Returns the F probability distribution. FDIST function. Filters a range of data based on criteria you define. Finds one text value within another case-sensitive. Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. FINV function. Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.
FIXED function. Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals. FLOOR function. Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
ETS function. Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date. Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series. STAT function. Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting. Returns a future value based on existing values. Returns the formula at the given reference as text.
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array.
FTEST function. FV function. Returns the future value of an investment. Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. GAMMA function.
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. GAUSS function. Returns 0. GCD function. Returns the greatest common divisor. Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value. Returns data stored in a PivotTable report. Returns values along an exponential trend. Converts a hexadecimal number to binary. Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal. Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell. HOUR function. Converts a serial number to an hour. Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet. Returns the hypergeometric distribution. IF function. Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula.
IFNA function. IFS function. Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition. IMABS function. Returns the absolute value modulus of a complex number.
Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians. Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number. IMCOS function. Returns the cosine of a complex number. Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number. IMCOT function. Returns the cotangent of a complex number. IMCSC function.
Excel Logical Functions
Returns the cosecant of a complex number. Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.
IMDIV function. Returns the quotient of two complex numbers. IMEXP function. Returns the exponential of a complex number. IMLN function. Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number. IMLOG10 function. Returns the base logarithm of a complex number. IMLOG2 function.
Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number. Returns a complex number raised to an integer power. Returns the product of complex numbers. Returns the real coefficient of a complex number. IMSEC function. Returns the secant of a complex number. Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number. IMSIN function. Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number. Returns the square root of a complex number. IMSUB function. Returns the difference between two complex numbers.
IMSUM function. IMTAN function. Returns the tangent of a complex number. INDEX function. Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. Returns a reference indicated by a text value. INFO function. Returns information about the current operating environment. INT function. Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. Returns the intercept of the linear regression line. Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. IPMT function. Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period.
IRR function. Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. ISERR function. Returns TRUE if the value is any error value.
Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula. Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value. ISNA function. Returns TRUE if the value is not text. Returns TRUE if the value is a number.
ISODD function. ISREF function. Returns TRUE if the value is a reference. Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date. ISPMT function. Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. JIS function. Changes half-width single-byte characters within a string to full-width double-byte characters.
KURT function. LARGE function. Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. LCM function. Returns the least common multiple. Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. Returns the number of characters in a text string. Returns the parameters of a linear trend. LN function. Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
LOG function. Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. LOG10 function. Returns the base logarithm of a number. Returns the parameters of an exponential trend. Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution.
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. Looks up values in a vector or array. LOWER function. MATCH function. Looks up values in a reference or array. MAX function. Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments. MAXA function. Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. Returns the matrix determinant of an array. Returns the median of the given numbers.
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. MIN function. Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments. Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. MINA function. Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
Converts a serial number to a minute.
Returns the matrix inverse of an array. MIRR function. Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates. MMULT function. Returns the matrix product of two arrays. MOD function. Returns the remainder from division.
MODE function. Returns the most common value in a data set.
MULT function. Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data. SNGL function. MONTH function. Converts a serial number to a month. Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.
Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers. MUNIT function. Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension. N function. Returns a value converted to a number. NA function. Returns the negative binomial distribution. Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates. INTL function. Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
Returns the annual nominal interest rate. Returns the normal cumulative distribution. Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. NOT function. NOW function. Returns the serial number of the current date and time. NPER function. Returns the number of periods for an investment.
NPV function. Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner. Converts an octal number to hexadecimal. ODD function. Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer. Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period. Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period. Returns a reference offset from a given reference. OR function. Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value.
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. EXC function. Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range INC function. Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set.
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects. Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects with repetitions that can be selected from the total objects. PHI function. Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution. Extracts the phonetic furigana characters from a text string. PI function. PMT function.
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity.
Excel RAND Function
POWER function. Returns the result of a number raised to a power. PPMT function. Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period. PRICE function. PROB function. Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value. PV function. Returns the present value of an investment. Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from Returns the integer portion of a division.
Converts degrees to radians. RAND function. Returns a random number between 0 and 1. Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. Returns a random number between the numbers you specify.Talha DB function. Converts a decimal number to octal. Name Box is used to return to a particular area of the worksheet by typing the range name or cell address in the name box. Converting a fraction of a day into hours, minutes and days by treating it as a moment on the day January 1, , does not work for a negative fraction.
ASIN function. Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. Returns e raised to the power of a given number. If you want to see the output of more than one cells in a single cell, it is possible by using AND function. Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals.
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